## AC-DC Rectifiers

**Power Diode Example**

Calculate the voltage across V_{DC} and the current I_{DC}, flowing through a 100Ω resistor connected to a 240 Vrms single phase half-wave rectifier as shown above. Also calculate the DC power consumed by the load.

During the rectification process the resultant output DC voltage and current are therefore both “ON” and “OFF” during every cycle. As the voltage across the load resistor is only present during the positive half of the cycle (50% of the input waveform), this results in a low average DC value being supplied to the load.

The variation of the rectified output waveform between this “ON” and “OFF” condition produces a waveform which has large amounts of “ripple” which is an undesirable feature. The resultant DC ripple has a frequency that is equal to that of the AC supply frequency.

Very often when rectifying an alternating voltage we wish to produce a “steady” and continuous DC voltage free from any voltage variations or ripple. One way of doing this is to connect a large value Capacitor across the output voltage terminals in parallel with the load resistor as shown below. This type of capacitor is known commonly as a “Reservoir” or *Smoothing Capacitor*.

Half-wave Rectifier with Smoothing Capacitor

When rectification is used to provide a direct voltage ( DC ) power supply from an alternating ( AC ) source, the amount of ripple voltage can be further reduced by using larger value capacitors but there are limits both on cost and size to the types of smoothing capacitors used.

For a given capacitor value, a greater load current (smaller load resistance) will discharge the capacitor more quickly (RC Time Constant) and so increases the ripple obtained. Then for single phase, half-wave rectifier circuit using a power diode it is not very practical to try and reduce the ripple voltage by capacitor smoothing alone. In this instance it would be more practical to use “Full-wave Rectification” instead.

In practice, the half-wave rectifier is used most often in low-power applications because of their major disadvantages being. The output amplitude is less than the input amplitude, there is no output during the negative half cycle so half the power is wasted and the output is pulsed DC resulting in excessive ripple. To overcome these disadvantages a number of Power Diode are connected together to produce a Full Wave Rectifier.