Power Diode 01 TESLA Institute

In the previous tutorials we saw that a semiconductor Signal Diode will only conduct current in one direction from its anode to its cathode (forward direction), but not in the reverse direction acting a bit like an electrical one way valve. A widely used application of this feature is in the conversion of an alternating voltage (AC ) into a continuous voltage (DC). In other words - Rectification.

But small signal diodes can also be used as Rectifiers in low-power, low current (less than 1-amp) rectifiers or applications, but were larger forward bias currents or higher reverse bias blocking voltages are involved the PN junction of a small signal diode would eventually overheat and melt so larger more robust Power Diodes are used instead.

Power Diode 03 TESLA InstituteThe power semiconductor diode, known simply as the Power Diode, has a much larger PN Junction area compared to its smaller signal diode cousin, resulting in a high forward current capability of up to several hundred amps (KA) and a reverse blocking voltage of up to several thousand volts (KV).

Since the power diode has a large PN Junction, it is not suitable for high frequency applications above 1MHz, but special and expensive high frequency, high current diodes are available. For high frequency rectifier applications Schottky Diodes are generally used because of their short reverse recovery time and low voltage drop in their forward bias condition.

Power diodes provide uncontrolled rectification of power and are used in applications such as battery charging and DC power supplies as well as AC rectifiers and inverters. Due to their high current and voltage characteristics they can also be used as free-wheeling diodes and snubber networks.

Power Diode 02 TESLA Institute  Power Diode 05 TESLA Institute  Power Diode 00 TESLA Institute

Power diodes are designed to have a forward “ON” resistance of fractions of an Ohm while their reverse blocking Resistance is in the mega-Ohms range. Some of the larger value power diodes are designed to be “stud mounted” onto heatsinks reducing their thermal resistance to between 0.1 to 1oC/Watt.

If an alternating voltage is applied across a power diode, during the positive half cycle the diode will conduct passing current and during the negative half cycle the diode will not conduct blocking the flow of current. Then conduction through the power diode only occurs during the positive half cycle and is therefore unidirectional i.e. DC as shown.

 

 

Power Diode 04 TESLA Institute

 

Power Diode Rectifier

 

Power diodes can be used individually as above or connected together to produce a variety of rectifier circuits such as “Half-Wave”, “Full-Wave” or as “Bridge Rectifiers”. Each type of rectifier circuit can be classed as either uncontrolled, half-controlled or fully controlled were an uncontrolled rectifier uses only power diodes, a fully controlled rectifier uses thyristors (SCRs) and a half controlled rectifier is a mixture of both diodes and thyristors.

The most commonly used individual power diode for basic electronics applications is the general purpose 1N400x Series Glass Passivated type rectifying diode with standard ratings of continuous forward rectified current of 1.0 amp and reverse blocking voltage ratings from 50v for the 1N4001 up to 1000v for the 1N4007, with the small 1N4007GP being the most popular for general purpose mains voltage rectification.

 

 

 

 

 

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