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Physics books in TESLA INSTITUTE e-Library

We have for you 18879 pages in 38 books in Physics category
...and 637226 pages in all 1554 books in our library.


   A Guide to Physics Problems. Part 1. Mechanics, Relativity, & Electrodynamics
   S.Cahn, B.Nadgorny
   Category:  Physics          Pages: 350
   A Short History of Physics in the American Century
   David C. Cassidy
   Category:  Physics          Pages: 320
   Advanced Lasers Laser Physics and Technology for Applied and Fundamental Science
   R. Aldrovandi, J.G. Pereira
   Category:  Physics          Pages: 691
   An Introduction to Computational Physics (2nd Edition)
   Tao Pang
   Category:  Physics          Pages: 402
   An Introduction to Geometrical Physics
   R. Aldrovandi, J.G. Pereira
   Category:  Physics          Pages: 691
   Basic Concepts in Physics
   Oleksiy Shulika, Igor Sukhoivanov
   Category:  Physics          Pages: 238
   Carbon Nanotubes - Synthesis, Structure, Properties and Applications
   M.S. Dresselhaus, G. Dresselhaus, P. Avouris
   Category:  Physics          Pages: 461
   Der Karlsruher Physikkurs - The Teacher's Manual
   Friedrich Herrmann, Georg Job
   Category:  Physics          Pages: 102
   Der Karlsruher Physikkurs - Volume 1: Energy, Momentum, Entropy
   Friedrich Herrmann, Georg Job
   Category:  Physics          Pages: 160
   Der Karlsruher Physikkurs - Volume 2: Data, electricity, Light
   Friedrich Herrmann, Georg Job
   Category:  Physics          Pages: 138
   Der Karlsruher Physikkurs - Volume 3: Reactions, Waves, Atoms
   Friedrich Herrmann, Georg Job
   Category:  Physics          Pages: 134
   Electrodynamics Of Continuous Media
   Landau, Lifshitz
   Category:  Physics          Pages: 429
   Elementary Particle Physics Vol 1: Quantum Field Theory and Particles
   Yorikiyo Nagashima
   Category:  Physics          Pages: 966
   Energetic Materials - Physics and Chemistry of the Inorganic Azides
   H.D. Fair, R.F. Walker
   Category:  Physics          Pages: 87
   Feynman's Tips on Physics
   R.P. Feynman, M.A. Gottlieb, R. Leighton
   Category:  Physics          Pages: 209
   Fundamental Math and Physics for Scientists and Engineers
   David Yevick, Hannah Yevick
   Category:  Physics          Pages: 464
   Fundamentals of Physics (10th Edition)
   Jearl Walker
   Category:  Physics          Pages: 1450
   Gaither's Dictionary of Scientific Quotations
   C.C. Gaither, A.E. Cavazos-Gaither
   Category:  Physics          Pages: 2817
   Handbook of Nitride Semiconductors and Devices - Vol. 1: Materials Properties, Physics and Growth
   Hadis Morkoç
   Category:  Physics          Pages: 1317
   Head First Physics
   Heather Lang
   Category:  Physics          Pages: 941
   High Efficiency Solar Cells - Physics, Materials, and Devices
   Xiaodong Wang, Zhiming M. Wang
   Category:  Physics          Pages: 664
   How Things Work - The Physics of Everyday Life (5th Edition)
   Louis A. Bloomfield
   Category:  Physics          Pages: 594
   Modern Physics (5th Edition)
   Paul A. Tipler, Ralph A. Llewellyn
   Category:  Physics          Pages: 758
   Modern Physics (6th Edition)
   Paul A. Tipler, Ralph A. Llewellyn
   Category:  Physics          Pages: 787
   Nonlinear Mathematical Physics and Natural
   Boyka Aneva, Mihaela Kouteva-Guentcheva
   Category:  Physics          Pages: 157
   Particle Accelerators - From Big Bang Physics to Hadron Therapy
   Ugo Amaldi
   Category:  Physics          Pages: 293
   Physics Curiosities, Oddities, and Novelties
   John Kimballphysics
   Category:  Physics          Pages: 362
   Physics for You
   Anil Ahlawat
   Category:  Physics          Pages: 80
   Physics Formulary
   Category:  Physics          Pages: 108
   Physics Olympiad - Basic to Advanced Exercises
   Category:  Physics          Pages: 380
   Principles of Physics - From Quantum Field Theory to Classical Mechanics
   Ni Jun
   Category:  Physics          Pages: 446
   Quantum Mechanics - The Theoretical Minimum
   Leonard Susskind, Art Friedman
   Category:  Physics          Pages: 385
   Solid State Physics
   Philip Hofmann
   Category:  Physics          Pages: 267
   Symmetry and Fundamental Physics
   Jerome Gauntlett
   Category:  Physics          Pages: 170
   The Classical Theory Of Fields
   Landau, Lifshitz
   Category:  Physics          Pages: 387
   The Dynamics of Heat Physics (2nd Edition)
   Hans U. Fuchs
   Category:  Physics          Pages: 747
   The Materials Physics Companion (2nd Edition)
   Anthony C. Fischer-Cripps
   Category:  Physics          Pages: 233





The number π is a mathematical constant, the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter, commonly approximated as 3.14159. It has been represented by the Greek letter "π" since the mid-18th century, though it is also sometimes spelled out as "pi" (/paɪ/).

Being an irrational number, π cannot be expressed exactly as a fraction (equivalently, its decimal representation never ends and never settles into a permanent repeating pattern). Still, fractions such as 22/7 and other rational numbers are commonly used to approximate π. The digits appear to be randomly distributed. In particular, the digit sequence of π is conjectured to satisfy a specific kind of statistical randomness, but to date no proof of this has been discovered. Also, π is a transcendental number, i.e., a number that is not the root of any non-zero polynomial having rational coefficients. This transcendence of π implies that it is impossible to solve the ancient challenge of squaring the circle with a compass and straightedge.



Ancient civilizations required fairly accurate computed values for π for practical reasons. It was calculated to seven digits, using geometrical techniques, in Chinese mathematics, and to about five digits in Indian mathematics in the 5th century AD. The historically first exact formula for π, based on infinite series, was not available until a millennium later, when in the 14th century the Madhava–Leibniz series was discovered in Indian mathematics. In the 20th and 21st centuries, mathematicians and computer scientists discovered new approaches that, when combined with increasing computational power, extended the decimal representation of π to many trillions of digits after the decimal point. Practically all scientific applications require no more than a few hundred digits of π, and many substantially fewer, so the primary motivation for these computations is the quest to find more efficient algorithms for calculating lengthy numeric series, as well as the human desire to break records. The extensive calculations involved have also been used to test supercomputers and high-precision multiplication algorithms.

Because its definition relates to the circle, π is found in many formulae in trigonometry and geometry, especially those concerning circles, ellipses, and spheres. Because of its special role as an eigenvalue, π appears in areas of mathematics and the sciences having little to do with the geometry of circles, such as number theory and statistics. It is also found in cosmology, thermodynamics, mechanics, and electromagnetism. The ubiquity of π makes it one of the most widely known mathematical constants both inside and outside the scientific community; several books devoted to it have been published, the number is celebrated on Pi Day, and record-setting calculations of the digits of π often result in news headlines. Attempts to memorize the value of π with increasing precision have led to records of over 70,000 digits.








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